Equity market investors must ascertain a stock's intrinsic worth. Fundamental analysis, which considers several quantitative criteria, determines a company's intrinsic worth. Typically, the inherent value and the market value are not the same.

**Ratio Techniques**

A stock's worth can be estimated using ratios.

Financial statements of a corporation are a common source of information for ratios. Comparing stock ratios to **fundamental intrinsic** value models may be quicker and simpler. Alternative ratio approaches can help determine the worth of a private company or a struggling company.

**Sectors and Ratios**

In general, the application of ratios is frequently researched within a specific industry. With the help of stock ratio analysis, you can quickly determine whether a stock's price is reasonable and whether it is likely to be overpriced or **undervalued**.

Analysts in basic intrinsic value models can use ratios. When free cash flow, operating income, and net income are suspect or nonexistent, assessments are made explicitly using ratio multiples to determine terminal value computations.

**Price-To-Earnings**

There are numerous applications for the price-to-earnings ratio (P/E). By definition, it is the current share price of a firm divided by its EPS over the previous twelve months. While the forward P/E is based on projected forecasts, the trailing P/E is based on past performance. P/E is typically categorized as a form of valuation ratio.

An investor may find it simple to get the expected price per share of a stock using the average of P/E ratios from various comparable companies, given a company's historical earnings per share performance. Additionally, looking at a company's real P/E might indicate whether the stock is reasonable in light of its competitors.

**Ratio PEG**

The price-to-earnings growth ratio is a more thorough analysis of P/E. (PEG). A stock's PEG ratio is determined by dividing its P/E balance by the rate of earnings growth. For many in the financial industry, this information is essential since, unlike the P/E ratio, it provides investors with a more thorough understanding of profitability growth by taking a company's profit growth into account.

**Price-to-Book**

Another ratio that considers a company's stock price is the price to book (P/B). Share price divided by the book value per share yields the price to the reader. In this ratio, a company's shareholder equity is a rapid indicator of book value, with book value per share equal to shareholder equity per share.

**Price-to-Dividend**

Dividend stocks are the main subject of analysis using the price-to-dividend ratio (P/D). This ratio shows how much money investors are ready to part with for every $1 that the company will distribute in dividends over a year. When evaluating a stock's worth over time or in comparison to other dividend-paying equities, this ratio is most helpful.

**Alternative Approaches Employing Ratios**

Operating income, net income, and free cash flow are absent in some businesses. They might not also anticipate producing any of these indicators in the far future. Private companies, those that have just listed initial public offerings, and possibly troubled businesses may all experience this. As a result, some ratios are thought to be more thorough than others and are, therefore, better suited for use in alternative valuation techniques.

**What Are the Common Valuation Ratio Types?**

Most valuation ratios examine how a stock's market price compares to some fundamental metric, such as earnings or book value. These are either given as price multiples or on a per-share basis. Using enterprise value (EV) instead of market pricing is an alternative. Enterprise value accounts for a company's debt and cash situations in addition to its equity value, which the stock price measures. EV is frequently regarded as a more thorough indicator of a company's value.

**How Should the PEG Ratio Be Interpreted?**

The PEG ratio takes a company's growth prospects into account. Typically, a stock with a PEG of 1.0 is considered fairly valued. Thus, PEGs below 1.0 are thought to be potentially undervalued, and those above 1.0 are supposed to be potentially overvalued.

**What Is the S&P 500 Stocks' Average P/E Ratio?**

From the 1870s until the present, the S&P 500's trailing P/E has typically ranged between 14 and 16. This indicates that, on average, the price of a company's stock was approximately 15 times its earnings per share. The S&P 500's P/E was approximately 25.5x as of Q1 2022, which was higher than its long-run average.